ra and bastet

"Isis, or the Moon". Bastet is one of the most powerful goddesses in the Egyptian pantheon. [12] These lakes were typical components of temples devoted to a number of lioness goddesses, who are said to represent one original goddess, Bastet, Mut, Tefnut, Hathor, and Sakhmet,[12] and came to be associated with sun gods such as Horus and Ra as well as the Eye of Ra.

Ra had three daughters Bastet, Sekhmet, and Hathor who were all considered the eye of Ra who would seek out his vengeance. The name change is thought to have been added to emphasize pronunciation of the ending t sound, often left silent. The Greeks associated Bastet with their warrior goddess Artemis, who had a twin brother, Apollo. Despite what these titles might suggest, Maahes was not seen as evil. The American Research Center in Egypt believes a text called "The Mythos of the Eye of Ra" might provide some additional insight. In Egyptian mythology, Bastet (Bast) is the goddess of protection, cats, pregnancy, fertility, music, warfare and ointments. [5] A festival of Bastet was known to be celebrated during the New Kingdom at Bubastis. En effet, Bastet était aussi une déesse protectrice du pharaon. Yet she could also be ferocious when punishing those who harmed others and created disorder in society. Many other pharaohs were linked to her through their titles. Turner and Bateson suggest that the status of the cat was roughly equivalent to that of the cow in modern India. According to the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum, it was common for women to make amulets dedicated to Bast.

She is also given the title of 'Eye of Ra… However, the goddess' legacy has been preserved through various creative works.

Her form and powers changed over the years. The aegis typically took the form of "a collar-like necklace." Bastet was originally a fierce lioness warrior goddess of the sun worshiped throughout most of ancient Egyptian history, but later she was changed into the cat goddess that is familiar today, becoming Bastet. The death of a cat might leave a family in great mourning and those who could, would have them embalmed or buried in cat cemeteries—pointing to the great prevalence of the cult of Bastet. This role was inextricably bound up with her identity as a cat goddess. Maahes had many other aspects in common with Bastet, as well. Additionally, it could kill mice, serpents, and other vermin with ease, making it especially instrumental in protecting crops and mitigating the spread of disease. Eventually Bastet and Sekhmet were characterized as two aspects of the same goddess, with Sekhmet representing the powerful warrior and protector aspect and Bastet, who increasingly was depicted as a cat, representing a gentler aspect. According to Ancient Egypt Online, she was the mother of the fearsome god Maahes. En tant que descendante de Râ, elle incarne la chaleur du soleil dans ses bienfaits. She could serve as a benevolent spiritual companion, watching over them as they went about their day-to-day activities. According to an essay by Egyptology scholar S.D. Additionally, Bastet is a supporting character in Rick Riordan's The Kane Chronicles, a trilogy about two teenagers (pictured above) who encounter the Egyptian gods. Taboubu responds by telling Setna to come to her home instead. Her form and powers changed over the years. Then they would dance and call out to any onlookers, presumably to entice them to join their party. As a cat goddess, Bastet was similarly able to provide solace and protection to her followers. She then was depicted as the daughter of Ra and Isis, and the consort of Ptah, with whom she had a son Maahes. As the goddess of fertility and childbirth, she was particularly associated with mothers. Bastet was known for her gentleness as the protector of women and the home. According to the Ancient History Encyclopedia, many attendees of the festival would deliver their mummified cats to Bastet's temple. The inscription suggests that the king, Amenhotep III, was present at the event and had great offerings made to the deity. She is strong both mentally and physically, with all the cleverness and ferocity that cats are known for. Cats were very important to the ancient Egyptians and were even considered to be demi-deities. My other titles are 'Lady of the East' and 'Lady of the Sept,' the star in the eastern Heavens. Setna then makes restitution to the family who owns the tomb, having learned his lesson. This description by Herodotus and several Egyptian texts suggest that water surrounded the temple on three (out of four) sides, forming a type of lake known as, isheru, not too dissimilar from that surrounding the temple of the mother goddess Mut in Karnak at Thebes. [16][17] Each year on the day of her festival, the town was said to have attracted some 700,000 visitors, both men and women (but not children), who arrived in numerous crowded ships. In 1888, a farmer uncovered a burial site of many hundreds of thousands of cats in Beni Hasan.[4]. When he touches her, however, she vanishes, and he finds himself standing naked in the street. Overcome with lust, he asks for her name and learns that she is Taboubu, the daughter of a priest of Bastet. Her followers traveled there from far and wide to pay their respects to her, often by having their cats interred as a dedication to her. [5] In the biblical Book of Ezekiel 30:17, the town appears in the Hebrew form Pibeseth. However, it is important to note that even as her image softened, the ancient Egyptians continued to see her as a minister of justice who showed no mercy to the cruel. According to the historian, it was typical for men and women to sail to the festival together in crowded boats. S.D. It could also communicate a message about respecting women rather than objectifying them.

Dennis C. Turner and Patrick Bateson estimate that during the Twenty-second Dynasty (c. 945–715 BC), Bastet worship changed from being a lioness deity into being predominantly a major cat deity.

He often took on a feline form, preferring to appear as a lion or lion-headed man. In her book Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt, Geraldine Pinch recounts another myth involving Ra and Bastet: Apparently, the sun god once healed her after she ingested poison, demonstrating the mutual relationship of care between the two. DC Comics News reports that she was also featured in a series called Doctor Fate, which tells the story of a medical school student who is chosen by the Egyptian gods to preserve the fate of mankind.

[6], As protector of Lower Egypt, she was seen as defender of the king, and consequently of the sun god, Ra. Bastet was one of the most powerful deities in the Egyptian pantheon. Cats in ancient Egypt were highly revered, partly due to their ability to combat vermin such as mice, rats (which threatened key food supplies), and snakes—especially cobras. "The temple is in the midst of the city, the whole circuit of which commands a view down into it. This association was carried on in depictions of Bastet's son Maahes, protector of the innocent… The Greeks sometimes equated Bastet with one of their goddesses, Artemis. Consequently, they believed that Bastet must also have a twin brother, as well, and decided that Horus, son of the Egyptian goddess Isis, was the most likely candidate. The temple is in the midst of the city, the whole circuit of which commands a view down into it; for the city's level has been raised, but that of the temple has been left as it was from the first, so that it can be seen into from without.

Sekhmet was the Eye of Ra and was created by the fire in Ra's eye. In her cat form, she would watch over him at night to protect him from Apep, the Egyptian embodiment of chaos and his greatest enemy. Bast or in later times Bastet, was a goddess of Lower Egypt and she was linked geographically with Sekhmet (of Upper Egypt). It was known in Greek as Boubastis (Βούβαστις) and translated into Hebrew as Pî-beset, spelled without the initial t sound of the last syllable. One recent suggestion by Stephen Quirke (Ancient Egyptian Religion) explains Bastet as meaning, "She of the ointment jar". Much like his mother, he was merely a force of justice, punishing those who dared to defy divine laws.

He also invented the seasons and the annual flooding of the Nile River. She is associated with both Mau, the divine cat who is an aspect of Ra, and with Mafdet, goddess of justice and the first feline deity in Egyptian history. Eventually, this was shortened to "Bast," and then "Bast" was lengthened to "Bastet." Set Up a Bastet Altar Designate a shelf, tabletop, or credenza as Bastet’s altar.

Bastet was originally a fierce lioness warrior goddess of the sun worshiped throughout most of ancient Egyptian history, but later she was changed into the cat goddess that is familiar today, becoming Bastet. The sistrum "was composed of a neck topped by a long arch to which three stems strung with small metal disks were attached." In early Egyptian hieroglyphs, her name appears to have been bꜣstt. As their name suggests, The Pyramid Texts were a series of writings carved into the walls of various pyramids in Saqqara circa 2400 BC. Others hold that it was related to Bastet's status as a fertility goddess. Shaking it was known to soothe the goddess so that she would be more willing to communicate with whomever was calling upon her. Great sacrifices were made and prodigious amounts of wine were drunk—more than was the case throughout the year. If you've ever looked into Egyptian mythology, you've likely come across Bastet, sometimes called Bast. Bastet donc elle est une divinité bénéfique, du côté des hommes, veillant sur leurs foyers afin qu’ils vivent dans lajoie au quotidien, mais aussi dans les plaisirs charnels. Although the image of Bastet as a cat-headed woman standing upright was favored by sculptors, they also represented her in other forms. Sometimes, he was venerated alongside her. [12][14] The town, known in Egyptian as pr-bꜣstt (also transliterated as Per-Bastet), carries her name, literally meaning House of Bastet. The native Egyptian rulers were replaced by Greeks during an occupation of Ancient Egypt in the Ptolemaic Dynasty that lasted almost 300 years. Her ferocious demeanor was feared by all those who worshipped her. She also warded off diseases associated with women and children and was said to guard women's secrets. Every day, she would ride beside him in his flying boat as he ferried the sun across the sky. In this story, Prince Setna disobeys orders by stealing a book from a tomb. Since the Second Dynasty, Bastet was worshiped as a deity, most commonly in Lower Egypt. Serpell, "Domestication and History of the Cat", p. 184.

This theory makes sense, considering that Bastet was often associated with protective ointments as well as with Nefertum, the god of perfume and sweet smells. He was also considered a patron of pharaohs and a protector of the innocent, just as she was. Then she was known as "Ubaste." Bubastis was especially popular with devotees of Bastet during its annual festival in the deity's honor. According to ReadDC.com, she even received her own spin-off trilogy called The Sandman Presents: Bast, which focuses on her strange friendship with a teenage girl named Lucy.

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