gung ho offensive


He concluded that the term is an "Americanism that is derived from the Chinese, but its several accepted American meanings have no resemblance whatsoever to the recognized meaning in the original language" and that its "various linguistic uses, as they have developed in the United States, have been peculiar to American speech."

Carlson’s Raiders were celebrated by the military and covered extensively in the Saturday Evening Post.

(It doesn’t, and according to Brady, the cooperatives would have only been affiliated with the Communists in local pockets.). Gung-ho describes enthusiasm — often to the point of naivete. In From Makin to Bougainville: Marine Raiders in the Pacific War, Maj. Jon. Gung-ho describes enthusiasm — often to the point of naivete. George Krainukov/Getty Images

Gung ho /ˈɡʌŋˈhoʊ/ is an English term, with the current meaning of "overly enthusiastic or energetic". Its mission was "organizing the unemployed workers and refugees for production to support the War of Resistance.

From there, it spread throughout the U.S. Marine Corps hence the association between the two, where it was used as an expression of spirit and into American society as a whole when the phrase became the title of a 1943 war film, Gung Ho!, about the 2nd Raider Battalion's raid on Makin Island in 1942. The original Chinese is 工業合作社, which means “industrial cooperative” —工業, (gōng yè) meaning “industry”, and 合作社, (hé zuò shè) meaning “cooperative.” We’re talking organizations democratically run by workers, producing industrial goods like blankets and military uniforms.

He believed that gung-ho meant something about teamwork. Brady is a professor at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand who specializes in politics in China. He was impressed by their mobility and flexibility, as well as the concern for their fellow soldiers’ welfare. And they named every new thing Gung Ho. Gōng hé—gung ho—became their slogan and battle cry. A Life magazine profile from 1943 said, “In Carlson’s opinion the 8th Route Army is the best-organized, best-led fighting force in the world today for its size and purpose.”, And for some reason, Carlson associated the Red Army with the Industrial Cooperative movement.

Its mission was “organizing the unemployed workers and refugees for production to support the War of Resistance.”, According to Anne-Marie Brady, that collaboration was how gung-ho entered the lexicon of many English speakers. ", He's not exaggerating about every new thing. But it didn’t always.

She says that the country back then "was very different from China today. I told them of the motto of the Chinese Cooperatives, Gung Ho. Civil war was breaking out. In Chinese, concludes Moe, "this is neither a slogan nor a battle cry; it is only a name for an organization.

The linguist Albert Moe, who wrote an extensive article about gung-ho in 1967, writes, “As early as the latter part of 1942, Marines other than those in the Second Raider Battalion used gung-ho as a term of disparagement to describe anyone whose conduct or behavior was obnoxious or offensive.” Apparently, the Marine Raiders were known for being rowdy and ready to prove how “rough and tough” they were. I told the boys about it again and again, I told them of the motto of the Chinese Cooperatives, Gung Ho. Today, we would Romanize it to gōng hé, but in the 1930s, the same sounds turned into kung ho, or gung-ho. I wasn’t exactly gung ho about waking up early this morning.

And so, the phrase leaked its way into the English language. The term’s current use stems from the way Carlson interpreted and popularized it. He was the first foreign military observer of the guerrilla soldiers of the 8th Route Army, (aka the Red Army, aka the Communist army). You're drawing up plans on napkins, you can see the city lined with posters for your astrology-based wine club or whatever, you're figuring out what color Tesla you're gonna get with those sweet, sweet Pinot-Scorpio returns. We're talking organizations democratically run by workers, producing industrial goods like blankets and military uniforms. The gung-ho slogan adopted by some Marines became so well-known that it was turned into a 1943 movie. In 1943, there was even a movie released called Gung Ho! Over eight years, an estimated 17 million civilians died, and 95 million more people became refugees. Joe Character, a business strategy book from 1998 that exotifies both the Chinese origins AND Native Americans, and a 1986 Ron Howard film about Japanese businessmen in Pennsylvania, featuring Engrish that will make your skeleton ache. One such foreigner was a fellow named Evans Fordyce Carlson. Within hours, you call up a friend to ask them to invest. ", The Red Army influenced now-Lt. Col. Carlson's leadership in a deeply idealistic way; every man would have input into the plans and officers had no distinct privileges until everyone felt they were earned. They even named their camp on the island of Espiritu Santo 'Camp Gung Ho.' And so, the phrase leaked its way into the English language. When I designed a field jacket to replace the bulky and orthodox pack they even called it the Gung Ho jacket. She says that the country back then “was very different from China today. When I designed a field jacket to replace the bulky and orthodox pack they even called it the Gung Ho jacket. T. Hoffman describes it as "an unconventional military philosophy that was an admixture of Chinese culture, Communist egalitarianism, and New England town hall democracy. ", And for some reason, Carlson associated the Red Army with the Industrial Cooperative movement. ", According to Anne-Marie Brady, that collaboration was how gung-ho entered the lexicon of many English speakers. It is thought to have originated from a catachresis of Chinese 工合 (pinyin: gōnghé; lit. Gung ho /ˈɡʌŋˈhoʊ/ is an English term, with the current meaning of "overly enthusiastic or energetic". A curious thing happened to gung-ho as it spread, though — it started to be a little less earnest, taking on the meaning it has now, that someone's a little too enthusiastic. So how did it go from describing a leftist co-op to an overzealous try-hard? He was the first foreign military observer of the guerrilla soldiers of the 8th Route Army, (aka the Red Army, aka the Communist army). 1. aggressive esprit de corps; 2. sometimes sardonically employed to characterize cocky indiscipline or contempt toward orthodox procedures and regulations.”. Carlson was a U.S. Marine who was somewhat involved with the ICCIC. A curious thing happened to gung-ho as it spread, though — it started to be a little less earnest, taking on the meaning it has now, that someone’s a little too enthusiastic. By many accounts, China during that era was not doing super well.

Today, we use gung ho (sometimes gung-ho) to mean really, really enthusiastic. Corbis via Getty Images Civil war was breaking out. Within hours, you call up a friend to ask them to invest. "You're being a little gung-ho about this.".

“As a result, the Gung Ho Battalion and its personnel soon were referred to as the ‘gung ho bastards.’ ”, Moe cites a 1952 glossary of Marine slang with the following definition: “GUNG HO. It was quite easy for foreigners to engage with activities in China and be part of a solution for addressing a serious problem like refugees.”. Or perhaps you're a world leader expressing how totally great your international trade talks are about to go. During the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, in late 1940, a crowd of Chinese refugees push to enter the French Concession of Shanghai. "[3], The term was picked up by United States Marine Corps Major Evans Carlson from his New Zealand friend, Rewi Alley, one of the founders of the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives. (Again, it did not. Maybe you're a college freshman, emailing all of your professors before the semester starts to tell them how absolutely thrilled you are to be in their class. hide caption.

Between 1939 and 1941, Carlson's life took some odd twists and turns. In 1937, Carlson arrived in Shanghai to serve his third tour in China. So soon enough, Carlson rejoined the Marines and was given control of the newly-established 2nd Marine Raider Battalion, which came to be known as “Carlson’s Raiders.”, The Red Army influenced now-Lt. Col. Carlson’s leadership in a deeply idealistic way; every man would have input into the plans and officers had no distinct privileges until everyone felt they were earned. Tens of millions of people living around Shanghai flooded inland, becoming refugees in their own country. According to Christopher Blaker, a historian and editor with the U.S. Marine Corps History Division, “Their long combat knives were called ‘Gung Ho’ knives, their hunting jackets were christened ‘Gung Ho’ jackets, and meetings in the field became ‘Gung Ho’ meetings. Then he wrote two books about China (one titled Twin Stars of China: A Behind-the-Scenes Story of China’s Valiant Struggle for Existence by a U.S. Marine who Lived & Moved with the People). He’s really gung ho about his new job. During the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, in late 1940, a crowd of Chinese refugees push to enter the French Concession of Shanghai.

"As a result, the Gung Ho Battalion and its personnel soon were referred to as the 'gung ho bastards.'

Politicians have spent decades fighting over statehood but many young voters think it's time to focus on rebuilding a decimated island instead. It's the name of so many different companies (like really): a French-Cajun G.I. In 1943, there was even a movie released called Gung Ho! In 1937, Japan invaded and kicked off the second Sino-Japanese War.

It means Work Together — Work in Harmony.” (Again, it did not.

In 1937, Japan invaded and kicked off the second Sino-Japanese War. : 'to work together'), acronym for Chinese Industrial Cooperatives (Chinese: 工業合作社; pinyin: Gōngyè Hézuòshè).

To see more, visit https://www.npr.org. Between 1939 and 1941, Carlson’s life took some odd twists and turns. Though the movement was relatively small, with 30,000 workers at 3,000 factories at its peak, it got outsized attention because English-speaking foreigners were involved, many of whom were central to forming the International Committee for the Promotion of Industrial Chinese Cooperatives (ICCIC). But it didn't always. He spent time touring China, examining the cooperatives and slowly coming to believe that U.S. war with Japan was inevitable.

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