Olsen, Klaus Malling & Larsson, Hans (1995): This page was last edited on 30 October 2020, at 18:52. Franklin's Gull: This medium-sized gull has a gray back and white underparts. They are most closely related to the terns (family Sternidae) and only distantly related to auks, skimmers and even more distantly to waders. Learn more about Icelandic birds in our article section, See more in the Handbook of the Birds of the World, Learn more on the Natural History of Iceland Site, Author: Dr. Þórður Örn Kristjánsson  Some English names refer to species complexes within the group: Hybridisation between species of gull occurs quite frequently, although to varying degrees depending on the species involved.  Others rely on kleptoparasitism to get their food. Gulls also display high levels of site fidelity, returning to the same colony after breeding there once and even usually breeding in the same location within that colony.
, The gulls are generalist feeders. Fledglings are brownish above but lighter coloured below. This area can be as large as a 5-m radius around the nest in the herring gull to just a tiny area of cliff ledge in the kittiwakes. In the lowlands on cultivated fields, it feeds on insects, worms, and seeds. , In addition to taking a wide range of prey, gulls display great versatility in how they obtain prey. The head of a gull may be covered by a dark hood or be entirely white. Comprehensive life histories for all bird species and families. Dark spots on the sclera are simply a pigmented lesion not unlike moles that appear on the skin, explains Minnesota Eye Consultants.
The black-headed gull most often nests in wetlands or close to lakes and the sea. They have pale feet and a brown beak.
Both sexes gather nesting material and build the nest, but the division of labour is not always exactly equal. The family Laridae was introduced (as Laridia) by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. They are less common on tropical islands, although a few species do live on islands such as the Galapagos and New Caledonia. First, the gull captures the mouse in a field. Red legs. In common usage, members of various gull species are often referred to as sea gulls or seagulls; however, "seagull" is a layperson's term that is not used by most ornithologists and biologists. The bill colour is often yellow with a red spot for the larger white-headed species and red, dark red or black in the smaller species. The wings are short with white spotted black tips. , Gulls are typically medium to large birds, usually grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. , The gulls have a worldwide cosmopolitan distribution. The walking gait of gulls includes a slight side to side motion, something that can be exaggerated in breeding displays. Often seen in large flocks in coastal areas, bays, coves, and lakes during migration and winter. The black spot is not causing anything to his vision. Next, the gull flies to a convenient body of water. Breeds near water in the boreal forest; the only gull that makes a stick nest. The plumage of the head varies by breeding season; in nonbreeding dark-hooded gulls, the hood is lost, sometimes leaving a single spot behind the eye, and in white-headed gulls, nonbreeding heads may have streaking. It has a strong direct flight with deep wing beats. Small gull with small black bill and rounded head.  While overall feeding success is a function of age, the diversity in both prey and feeding methods is not. The nest is a pile of dry vegetation and feathers where the bird lays 2-3 eggs. The population grew fast and was estimated 25000-30000 breeding pairs in 1990.
Nest building is also part of the pair-bonding. Existing pairs re-establish their pair-bonds, and unpaired birds begin courting. Most Icelandic black-headed gulls are migratory and arrive to the country late March and leave towards Great Britain and western Europe when the days become shorter in September. For example, many gull colonies display mobbing behavior, attacking and harassing predators and other intruders.  In coastal towns, many gulls nest on rooftops and can be observed by nearby human residents. Gulls are typically coastal or inland species, rarely venturing far out to sea, except for the kittiwakes. Gull nests are usually mats of herbaceous matter with a central nest cup. The black spot is on the back of the eye. Large white-headed gulls are typically long-lived birds, with a maximum age of 49 years recorded for the herring gull.
The male is a little bigger than the female, which is common among Charadriiformes. Still, there can be found colonies in the lowland on dry sands or moors. , Gulls are monogamous and colonial breeders that display mate fidelity that usually lasts for the life of the pair. In the air, a number of hooded species are able to hawk insects on the wing; larger species perform this feat more rarely. They often nest in sparse colonies that can count over 1000 breeding pairs. Both sexes incubate the eggs, with incubation bouts lasting between one and four hours during the day and one parent incubating through the night. To obtain prey from deeper down, many species of gulls feed in association with other animals, where marine hunters drive prey to the surface when hunting.  A method of obtaining prey unique to gulls involves dropping heavy shells of clams and mussels onto hard surfaces.
 The large species take up to four years to attain full adult plumage, but two years is typical for small gulls. , Incubation lasts between 22 and 26 days, and begins after laying the first egg, although it is discontinuous until the second egg is laid.
The wingtips of most species are black, which improves their resistance to wear and tear, usually with a diagnostic pattern of white markings. Small, pale gull with white underparts and gray back. Species that nest in marshes must construct a nesting platform to keep the nest dry, particularly in species that nest in tidal marshes. The time taken to learn foraging skills may explain the delayed maturation in gulls. Immatures also show white primaries with blackish-brown markings on the upperwing. The tails of all but three species are rounded; the exceptions being Sabine's gull and swallow-tailed gulls, which have forked tails, and Ross's gull, which has a wedge-shaped tail. They typically have harsh wailing or squawking calls; stout, longish bills; and webbed feet. , "Seagull" redirects here. Both parents feed the chicks, although early on in the rearing period, the male does most of the feeding and the female most of the brooding and guarding.. Your Online Guide To Birds And Bird Watching. The bill is generally heavy and slightly hooked, with the larger species having stouter bills than the smaller species.  In common usage, gull-like seabirds that are not technically gulls (e.g. The male is a little bigger than the female, which is common among Charadriiformes. "doc found a black spot behind my eye said it could be a freckle sending me for 2nd opinion. , Gulls range in size from the little gull, at 120 grams (4 1⁄4 ounces) and 29 centimetres (11 1⁄2 inches), to the great black-backed gull, at 1.75 kg (3 lb 14 oz) and 76 cm (30 in). The eggs of gulls are usually dark tan to brown or dark olive with dark splotches and scrawl markings, and are well camouflaged. It … The head of a gull may be covered by a dark hood or be entirely white. seeing floaters n blurry vision eyepain is this normal?" Juveniles have pink feet and a dark tip on the beak.
Often seen in flight. The Black-headed Gull is a pale grey-white bird, apart from the chocolate brown coloured head. This initially led them to believe that the female was washing off the mouse after it had been transported to the breeding area. Not noticable at all except by an eye doctor. Nonbreeding adult. Both parents care for the young until it can fly. Birds then move back into their territories and new males establish new territories and attempt to court females. Thin, black bill. The young are precocial, born with dark mottled down and mobile upon hatching. They bring food and keep it warm during the cold Arctic nights. Biologists who first observed this habit observed it between mating pairs of gulls.
 Many species of gulls have learned to coexist successfully with humans and have thrived in human habitats.
Prey can be obtained in the air, on water, or on land. Take Merlin with you in the field! Although it has the name ‘Black-headed’, its head is actually a dark chocolate brown colour in the summer and in winter its head is mainly white with only a dark spot behind each eye. The plumage of the head varies by breeding season; in nonbreeding dark-hooded gulls, the hood is lost, sometimes leaving a single spot behind the eye, and in white-headed gulls, nonbreeding heads may …
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