Pollard, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Clifford; Tignor, Robert (2011). Two main scenarios are proposed, an early expansion to Central Africa, and a single origin of the dispersal radiating from there, or an early separation into an eastward and a southward wave of dispersal, with one wave moving across the Congo basin towards East Africa, and another moving south along the African coast and the Congo River system towards Angola. Possible movements by small groups to the southeast from the Great Lakes region could have been more rapid, with initial settlements widely dispersed near the coast and near rivers, due to comparatively harsh farming conditions in areas farther from water. 1980 May 16;243(19):1909-11  The total number of speakers is in the hundreds of millions, ranging at roughly 350 million in the mid-2010s (roughly 30% of the population of Africa, or roughly 5% of the total world population). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). From the 12th century onward, the processes of state formation amongst Bantu peoples increased in frequency.
Cattle terminology in use amongst the relatively few modern Bantu pastoralist groups suggests that the acquisition of cattle may have been from Cushitic-speaking neighbors.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. (1999) have 542, Maho (this volume) has some 660, and Mann et al. The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original Proto-Bantu-speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Saharan Africa. Silva DG, Belini Junior E, Carrocini GC, Torres Lde S, Ricci Júnior O, Lobo CL, Bonini-Domingos CR, de Almeida EA. Busoga, Rwanda, Burundi, Ankole and in Southern Africa, the Mutapa Empire, the Zulu Kingdom, the Ndebele Kingdom, Mapungubwe, the Kingdom of Butua, Maravi, Danamombe, Khami, Naletale, Kingdom of Zimbabwe and the Rozwi Empire.. There is no native term for the peoples who speak Bantu languages, because they are not an ethnic group. A number just above 200 million was cited in the early 2000s (see. Archaeologists are divided over whether all these cultural and economic attributes arrived with a single group of new immigrants speaking... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Zago MA, Silva WA Jr, Dalle B, Gualandro S, Hutz MH, Lapoumeroulie C, Tavella MH, Araujo AG, Krieger JE, Elion J, Krishnamoorthy R. Am J Hematol. By the 1970s this so discredited "Bantu" as an ethno-racial designation that the apartheid government switched to the term "Black" in its official racial categorizations, restricting it to Bantu-speaking Africans, at about the same time that the Black Consciousness Movement led by Steve Biko and others were defining "Black" to mean all non-European South Africans (Bantus, Khoisan, Coloureds, and Indians). Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! 2013 Feb 21;121(8):1276-84 The word Bantu for the language families and its speakers is an artificial term based on the reconstructed Proto-Bantu term for "people" or "humans". Twelve Bantu languages are spoken by more than five million people, including Rundi, Rwanda, Shona, Xhosa, and Zulu. Comparable sites in Southern Africa, include Bumbusi in Zimbabwe and Manyikeni in Mozambique. In modern South Africa due to its connection to apartheid the noun has become so discredited that it is only used in its original linguistic meaning.. | , Under the Bantu expansion migration hypothesis, various Bantu-speaking peoples would have assimilated and/or displaced many earlier inhabitants, with only a few modern peoples such as Pygmy groups in central Africa, the Hadza people in northern Tanzania, and various Khoisan populations across southern Africa retaining autonomous existence into the era of European contact. Bantu is by far the largest, and its speakers are mainly concentrated in the southern third of the country. NIH the Malagasy people showing Bantu admixture, and their Malagasy language Bantu loans. After World War II, the National Party governments adopted that usage officially, while the growing African nationalist movement and its liberal allies turned to the term "African" instead, so that "Bantu" became identified with the policies of apartheid.
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